.Blacksmithing/forging
D&B: Complete 14
J: Complete 15
CSA: Complete 16
Blacksmithing is the art and science of forming steel while it is still hot
150 years ago, most census records showed that a fifth of the respondents listed their occupation as blacksmith.
1)A smith is a person who works in metal. A blacksmith works with iron and steel. Why is a smith that works with primarily iron or steel called a blacksmith?
The box of nails we buy at the hardware store for a few dollars were once made one at a time by a smith
2) Name 5 everyday objects that are created through smith or forging.
3) What is the difference between and blacksmith and a farrier
It is said that in blacksmithing and forging there are 3 important steps to follow.
The Three Hs: Heating, Holding and Hitting.
Heating:
Iron must be very hot in order to shape it. To heat your iron, you use a forge.
There are two types of forges. Gas forges and coke forges.
4) Find 3 facts about each type of forge. Which would be most practical in today's world and why?
5) A bellows is an important tool in blacksmithing. What is a bellows and what purpose does it serve?
Holding:
When working with hot iron you need the proper tools to insure safe handling.
Most smiths use tongs when placing and removing their iron from the forge.
The most popular types of tongs are Box jaw tongs, double & triple pickup tongs, duckbill tongs, fire tongs and heavy V-bit bolt tongs.
6) Find out more about each type of tongs and their specific uses in blacksmithing
Hitting:
One way to shape your iron is by using a hammer.
There are a few ways to change a piece of iron's shape with hammer and heat. Here are the most important ways that a blacksmith uses: • Bending: hammering a piece of hot iron, to make it curve or to make it have a corner. • Drawing: hammering on the sides of a piece of hot iron, to make it longer and thinner. • Upsetting: hammering on the end of a piece of hot iron, to make it shorter and fatter.
There are several different types of hammers that can be used to achieve the desired shape of your iron. Locksmiths hammers, clipping hammers, cross peen hammers, driving hammers, mallets, rounding hammers and sledge hammers just to name a few.
7) Find a few videos of each type of hammer at work.
Besides a hammer you can also use a punch, a chisel, or a welder to change the shape of your iron.
A punch is a tool like a short stick of iron. The end of the punch is flat. • Punching: A blacksmith hammers a punch through a piece of hot iron, to make a hole in the hot iron. A chisel is a tool like a short stick of iron. The end of the chisel is sharp to cut. • Cutting: hammering a chisel through the side of a piece of hot iron, to make two shorter pieces. • Splitting: hammering a chisel into the end of a piece of hot iron, to make a stick of iron into a "Y" shape, to make a fork. • Riveting: a rivet is like a machine bolt with a head at both ends. Rivets are used to make different pieces of iron stay together. The blacksmith makes a hole in each piece of iron, where he wants the pieces to come together. A rivet is then put in the holes, and the blacksmith hammers on the rivet to make the heads at each end of the rivet. • Welding: making different pieces of iron become one piece of iron. The blacksmith makes the pieces of iron so hot that they almost melt. Then he puts the pieces together and hammers on them so there is no line where they came together. 8) Why is welding is the hardest thing for a blacksmith to learn and to do?
9) What is "work-hardening"?
If a smith hammers or bends a piece of metal that is already work-hardened, it will crack and break. To make work-hardened metal soft again, so that a smith can hammer and bend it more, the smith anneals the metal.
10) What does “anneal” mean and what is the process?
Steel acts just like iron, until a blacksmith "heat-treats" the steel.
11) What is the difference between steel and iron?
12) What does “Heat-treat” mean and what is the process?
When working with Steel the smith has to "draw the temper" or "temper" the steel, so that it will not break like glass.
13) What is the process to ‘Temper” the steel?
A blacksmith does not hammer a blade edge thin. A blacksmith hammers the steel so that the edge stays thick. After the "heat-treat" and "temper", stones are used to grind the blade edge to make it sharp.
14) Why is the edge of the blade left think?
15) What type of stone is used to sharpen the blade?
Now that you know more about blacksmithing put your new skills and knowledge to use.
16) Take a blacksmithing class. Visit with or take a class with a local blacksmithing organization
(I couldn’t find a central page for blacksmithing associations nationwide but if you visit http://www.habairon.org/, on the right-hand side of the page there is a list of other area organizations)
16) Share your skills. Share what you learned, what you liked, and disliked about learning how to smith and forge with a younger group, friends, or family.

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